Essentials Home
What Language Teaching Is
Teaching Goals and Methods
Planning a Lesson
Motivating Learners
Assessing Learning
Teaching Grammar
Teaching Listening
Teaching Speaking
Teaching Reading
Teaching Writing
Teaching Culture


Teaching Grammar

Using Textbook Grammar Activities

Textbooks usually provide one or more of the following three types of grammar exercises.

  • Mechanical drills: Each prompt has only one correct response, and students can complete the exercise without attending to meaning. For example:
    George waited for the bus this morning. He will wait for the bus tomorrow morning, too.

  • Meaningful drills: Each prompt has only one correct response, and students must attend to meaning to complete the exercise. For example:
    Where are George’s papers? They are in his notebook.
    (Students must understand the meaning of the question in order to answer, but only one correct answer is possible because they all know where George’s papers are.)

  • Communicative drills, described in Strategies for Learning Grammar

To use textbook grammar exercises effectively, instructors need to recognize which type they are, devote the appropriate amount of time to them, and supplement them as needed.

Recognizing Types

Before the teaching term begins, inventory the textbook to see which type(s) of drills it provides. Decide which you will use in class, which you will assign as homework, and which you will skip.

Assigning Time

When deciding which textbook drills to use and how much time to allot to them, keep their relative value in mind.

  • Mechanical drills are the least useful because they bear little resemblance to real communication. They do not require students to learn anything; they only require parroting of a pattern or rule.

  • Meaningful drills can help students develop understanding of the workings of rules of grammar because they require students to make form-meaning correlations. Their resemblance to real communication is limited by the fact that they have only one correct answer.

  • Communicative drills require students to be aware of the relationships among form, meaning, and use. In communicative drills, students test and develop their ability to use language to convey ideas and information.


If the textbook provides few or no meaningful and communicative drills, instructors may want to create some to substitute for mechanical drills. See Developing Grammar Activities for guidelines.





























©2003, 2004 The National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC | site map | about NCLRC | contact NCLRC