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Essentials Home
What Language Teaching Is
Teaching Goals and Methods
Planning a Lesson
Motivating Learners
Assessing Learning
Teaching Grammar
Teaching Listening
Teaching Speaking
Teaching Reading
Teaching Writing
Teaching Culture

 

Resources

We update this page regularly. If you know of a resource that should be added, please contact us.

 

Resources: What Language Teaching Is

Beretta, A. (1991). Theory construction in SLA: Complementarity and opposition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13 (4), 493-511.

Brown, D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents.

Chamot, A.U. (1995). The teacher's voice: Action research in your classroom. ERIC/CLL News Bulletin, 18 (2).

Doff, A. (1988). Teach English: A training course for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harmer, J. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman.

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kramsch, C. (1995). Embracing conflict versus achieving consensus in foreign language education. ADFL Bulletin, 26(3), 6-12.

Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (1992). How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards, J., & Lockhart, C. (1994). Reflective teaching in second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Rivers, W. (1988). Teaching French: A practical guide. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

Sandrock, P. (1995). Foreign language education at the crossroads: Bringing coherence to the journey of a lifetime. In R. Donato & R. M. Terry (Eds.), Foreign language learning: The journey of a lifetime (pp. 167-188).

Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.

Seldin, P. (1991). The teaching portfolio: A practical guide to improved performance and promotion/tenure decisions. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.

Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers: A reflective approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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Resources: Teaching Goals and Methods

Bailey, N., Madden, C., & Krashen, S. (1974). Is there a "natural sequence" in adult second language learning? Language Learning 21, 235-243.

Bennett, J. (1996). Learner-centered instruction for adult learners. A workshop for curriculum designers involved in the revision of the NAFSA curriculum. Washington, DC: NAFSA: Association of International Educators.

Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second language use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Biber, D. (1988). Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.

Brinton, D., Snow, M. A., and Wesche, M. B.   (1989).   Content-based second language instruction. New York: Newbury House/Harper & Row.

Brooks, N (1960). Language and language learning: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Brown, D. (1994). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Regents.

Brown, H. D. (1987). Principles of language learning and teaching (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bruffee, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning and the "conversation of mankind." College English 46, 635-652.

Canale, M., and Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1 (1), 1-47.

Chaudron, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: Research on teaching and learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cummins, J. (1991). Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Doughty, C., & Pica, T. (1986). "Information gap" tasks: Do they facilitate second language acquisition? TESOL Quarterly 20, 305-325.

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Flynn, S., & O'Neill, W. (Eds.). (1988). Linguistic theory in second language acquisition. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Freed, B. F. (Ed.). (1991). Foreign language acquisition research and the classroom. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

Gass, S. M. (1988). Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics 9 , 198-217.

Gass, S. M., & Schachter, J. (Eds.). (1989). Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.). (1990). The development of second language proficiency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hilles, S. (1986). Interlanguage and the pro-drop parameter. Second Language Research 2, 33-52.

Hymes, D. (1970). On communicative competence. In J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), Directions in sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Hymes, D. (1971). Competence and performance in linguistic theory. In R. Huxley & E. Ingram (Eds.), Language acquisition: Models and methods. Academic Press.

Kramsch, C., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (Eds.). (1992). Text and context: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on language study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.

Krashen, S. (1977). Some issues relating to the monitor model. In H. Brown, C. Yorio, & R. Crymes, (Eds.), On TESOL '77. Washington, DC: TESOL.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London: Longman.

Krashen, S. (1992). Some new evidence for an old hypothesis. Paper delivered at the Georgetown University Round Table in Linguistics, Washington, DC.

Krashen, S., Butler, J., Birnbaum, R., & Robertson, J. (1978). Two studies in language acquisition and language learning.   ITL: Review of Applied Linguistics 39/40, 73-92.

Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay.

Krueger, M., & Ryan, F. (Eds.). (1993). Language and content: Discipline- and content-based approaches to language study. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1991). Second language acquisition research: Staking out the territory. TESOL Quarterly, 25 (2), 315-350.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M.H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.

Lee, J. F. and VanPatten, B. (1995). Making communicative language teaching happen. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Lewis, M. and Hill, J. (1992). Practical techniques for language teaching. Language Teaching Publications.

Lightbown, P. (1981). What have we here? Some observations on the effect of instruction on L2 learning. In E. Phillipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood-Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Lightbown, P.   (1985). Great expectations: Second language acquisition research and classroom teaching. Applied Linguistics 6, 173-189.

Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative language teaching: An introduction. Cambridge University Press.

Littlewood, W. (1984). Foreign and second language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Livingstone, C. (1983). Role play in language learning. London: Longman.

Long, M., & Crookes, G. (1992). Three approaches to task-based syllabus design. TESOL Quarterly 26 (1) , 27-56.

McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse analysis for language teachers. Cambridge University Press.

McLaughlin, B.   (1987). Theories of second-language learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Nemser, W. (1971). Approximative systems of foreign language learners. International Review of Applied Linguistics 9 , 115-123.

Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-centered curriculum: A study in second language teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge University Press.

Omaggio Hadley, A. (1993). Teaching language in context (2nd ed.). Heinle & Heinle.

Pica, T., & Doughty, C. (1985). The role of group work in classroom second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 7 , 233-248.

Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates language. New York: William Morrow.

Preston, D. R. (1989). Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition. London: Basil Blackwell.

Pride, J. B. (1979). Sociolinguistic aspects of language learning and teaching. London: Oxford University Press.

Savignon, S. (1972). Communicative competence: An experiment in foreign language teaching. Center for Curriculum Development.

Savignon, S. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Savignon, S. (1991). Communicative language teaching: State of the art. TESOL Quarterly, 25 (2), 261-277.

Schachter, J. (1990). Communicative competence revisited. In B. Harley, P. Allen, J. Cummins, & M. Swain (Eds.), The development of second language proficiency (pp. 39-49). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shrum, J. L., & Glisan, E. W. (1994). Teacher's handbook: Contextualized language instruction. Heinle & Heinle.

Spada, N. (1987). Relationships between instructional differences and learning outcomes: A process-product study of communicative language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 8 (2), 137-161.

Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for language learning. London: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Tarone, E. (1988). Variation in interlanguage. London: Edward Arnold.

Walz, J. (1989). Context and contextualized language practice in foreign language teaching. The Modern Language Journal, 73 (2), 160-168.

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Resources: Planning a Lesson

Chamot, A. U., & O'Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Kramsch, C. J. The order of discourse in language teaching. In B. F. Freed (Ed.), Foreign language acquisition and the classroom (pp. 191-204). Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

Lee, J. F., & VanPatten, B. (1995). Making communicative language teaching happen. San Francisco: McGraw-Hill.

Lewis, M., & Hill, J. (1992). Practical techniques for language teaching. Language Teaching Publications.

Lightbown, P. (1983). Exploring relationships between developmental and instructional sequences in L2 acquisition. In H. Seliger & M. Long (Eds.), Classroom-oriented research in second language acquisition (pp. 217-243). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

McCutcheon, G. (1980). How do elementary school teachers plan? The nature of the planning process and influences on it. The Elementary School Journal, 81 (1), 4-23.

Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Omaggio Hadley, A. (1993). Teaching language in context (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Rooks, G. (1981). Nonstop discussion book. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.

Shrum, J. L., & Glisan, E. W. (1994). Teacher's handbook: Contextualized language instruction. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

VanPatten, B. (1990). Attending to form and content in the input. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 287-301.

VanPatten, B., & Cadierno, T. (1993). Explicit instruction and input processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 225-244.

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Resources: Motivating Learners

Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies: A psychological analysis of second language use. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Chamot, A. U. (1993). Student responses to learning strategy instruction in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 26(3), 308-321.

Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P. B., Carbonaro, G., & Robbins, J. (1993). Methods for teaching learning strategies in foreign language instruction and informal assessment of language skills. Final report submitted to Center for International Education, U.S. Department of Education. Available from ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, ED 365 157.

Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 13-24.

Derry, S. J. (1990). Learning strategies for acquiring useful knowledge. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 347-379). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gagné, E. D., Yekovich, C. W., & Yekovich, F. R. (1993). The cognitive psychology of school learning (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second-language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. (1994). Second language acquisition: An introductory course. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Harley, B., Allen, P., Cummins, J., & Swain, M. (Eds.). (1990). The development of second language proficiency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hosenfeld, C., Arnold, V., Kirchofer, J., Laciura, J., & Wilson, L. (1981). Second language reading: A curricular sequence for teaching reading strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 14(5), 415-422.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Long, M. H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London: Longman.

O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

O'Malley, J. M., Chamot, A. U., & Küpper, L. (1989). Listening comprehension strategies in second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 10(4), 418-437.

Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R., & Cohen, A. (1992). Language learning strategies: Critical issues of concept and classification. Applied Language Learning, 3, 1-35.

Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1985). Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote "reading with your mind." In T. L. Harris & E. J. Cooper (Eds.), Reading, thinking, and concept development: Strategies for the classroom (pp. 147-160). New York: The College Board.

Palincsar, A. S., & Brown, A. L. (1986). Interactive teaching to promote independent learning from text. The Reading Teacher, 39(2), 771-777.

Paris, S. G., & Winograd, P. (1990). How metacognition can promote academic learning and instruction. In B. F. Jones & L. Idol (Eds.), Dimensions of thinking and cognitive instruction (pp. 15-51). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.       

Pressley, M., & Harris, K. (1990). What we really know about strategy instruction. Educational Leadership, 48(1), 31-34.

Rost, M., & Ross, S. (1991). Learner use of strategies in interaction: Typology and teachability. Language Learning, 41(2), 235-273.

Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for language learning. London: Oxford University Press.

Thompson, I., & Rubin, J. (1995). How to be a more successful language learner (2nd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Titone, R., & Danesi, M. (1985). Applied psycho-linguistics: An introduction to the psychology of language learning and teaching. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Vann, R. J., & Abraham, R. G. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 177-198.

Wenden, A. (1987). How to be a successful learner: Insights and prescriptions from L2 learners. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Wenden, A., & Rubin, J. (Eds.). (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Pons, M. M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(3), 614-628.

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Resources: Assessing Learning

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. (1986). ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Author.

Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. London: Oxford.

Bailey, K., Freeman, D., & Curtis, A. (2001). Goals-based evaluation procedures: How students perceive what teachers intend. TESOL Journal, 10(4), 5-9.

Baron, J. B. (1991). SEA Usage of Alternative Assessment: The Connecticut Experience. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 349 816).

Cohen, A. D. (1994). Assessing language ability in the classroom (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp. (1993). Portfolio assessment in foreign language, pilot project. (ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED 368 197).

Fraser, Catherine. (1995). Portfolio assessment in the foreign language classroom: What works. In G. K. Crouse (Ed.), Report of Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages: Broadening the frontiers of foreign language education (pp. 98-106). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.

Hancock, C. R. (1994, July). Alternative assessment and second language study: What and why? ERIC Digest. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 376 695).

Hancock, C. R. (Ed.). (1994). Teaching, testing, and assessing: Making the connection. Northeast Conference Reports. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.

Hart, D. (1994). Authentic assessment: A handbook for educators. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Shohamy, E. (1985). A practical handbook in language testing for the second language teacher. Israel: Shoshana Goldberg.

Valette, R. M. (1977). Modern language testing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, May 1989, 703-704.

Wiggins, G. (1994). Toward more authentic assessment of language performance. In C. R. Hancock (Ed.), Teaching, testing, and assessment: Making the connection (pp. 69-85). Northeast Conference Reports. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

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Resources: Teaching Grammar

Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A., & Williams, E. (Eds.). (1994). Grammar and the language teacher. Hemel Hempstead, England: Prentice Hall.

Byrd, P. (1994). Writing grammar textbooks: Theory and practice. System, 22 (2), 245-255.

Byrd, P. (1995). Issues in the writing and publication of grammar textbooks. In P. Byrd (Ed.), Material writer's guide (pp. 45-63). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Celce-Murcia, M., & Hilles, S. (1988). Techniques and resources in teaching grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cook, V. (1994). Universal grammar and the learning and teaching of second languages. In T. Odlin (Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp. 25-48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hubbard, P. L. (1994). Non-transformational theories of grammar: Implications for language teaching. In T. Odlin (Ed.), Perspectives on pedagogical grammar (pp. 25-48). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. London: Continuum.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (1997). Grammar and its teaching: Challenging the myths (ERIC Digest). Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on languages and Linguistics, Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved May 14, 2003, from http://www.cal.org/ericcll/digest/larsen01.html

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2001a). Teaching grammar. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. (3rd ed.) (pp. 251-266). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2001b). Teaching language: From grammar to grammaring. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Lee, J. F., & VanPatten, B. (1995). Making communicative language teaching happen. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Omaggio Hadley, A. (2001). Teaching language in context (3 rd ed.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Rutherford, W. (1987). Second language grammar: Learning and teaching. London: Longman.

Rutherford, W., & Sharwood Smith, M. (1988). Grammar and second language teaching: A book of readings. New York: Newbury House.

Ur, P. (1988). Grammar practice activities: A practical guide for teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weaver, C. (1996). Teaching grammar in context. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

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Resources: Teaching Listening

Byrnes, H. (1984). The role of listening comprehension: A theoretical base. Foreign Language Annals , 17 , 317-329.

Coakley, C.G., & Wolvin, A.D. (1986). Listening in the native language. In B. H. Wing (Ed.), Listening, reading, writing: Analysis and application (pp. 11-42). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference.

Gass, S. M. (1988). Integrating research areas: A framework for second language studies. Applied Linguistics, 9 , 198-217.

Lund, R.J. (1990). A taxonomy for teaching second language listening. Foreign Language Annals, 23 , 105-115.

Mendelsohn, D.J., & Rubin, J. (1995). A guide for the teaching of second language listening. San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.

Morley, J. (1991). Listening comprehension in second/foreign language instruction. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 81-106). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Nunan, D., & Miller, L. (Eds.). (1995). New ways in teaching listening. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.

Omaggio-Hadley, A. (1993). Teaching language in context (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Peterson, P.W. (1991). A synthesis of methods for interactive listening. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 106-122). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Richards, J.C. (1983). Listening comprehension: Approach, design, procedure. TESOL Quarterly, 17 , 219-240.

Rixon, S. (1981). The design of materials to foster particular linguistic skills. The teaching of listening comprehension. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 258 465).

Rost, M. (1990). Listening in language learning. London: Longman.

Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies: Theoretical assumptions, research history and typology. In A. Wenden & J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning (pp. 15-30). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Rubin, J. (1995). The contribution of video to the development of competence in listening. In D.J. Mendelsohn & J. Rubin (Eds.), A guide for the teaching of second language listening (pp. 151-165). San Diego, CA: Dominie Press.

Underwood, M. (1989). Teaching listening. London: Longman.

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Resources: Teaching Speaking

Brown, and G. Yule. (1983). Teaching the spoken language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidt, R. W., & Frota, S. N. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In R. R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn (pp. 237-326). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

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Resources: Teaching Reading

Ackersold, J. A., & Field, M. L. (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, N. (1999). Exploring second language reading: Issues and strategies. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Barnett, M. A. (1989). More than meets the eye: Foreign language learner reading theory and practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

Bernhardt, E. (1991). Reading development in a second language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Carrell, P. L. (1989). Metacognitive awareness and second language reading. Modern Language Journal, 73, 121-133.

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Devine, J. (1993). The role of metacognition in second language reading and writing. In J. G. Carson & I. Leki (Eds.), Reading in the composition classroom (pp. 105-127). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Eskey, D. (2002). Reading and the teaching of L2 reading. TESOL Journal, 11(1), 5-9.

Galloway, V. (1992). Toward a cultural reading of authentic texts. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Languages for a multicultural world in transition (pp. 87-121). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Co.

Glazer, S. M. (1992). Reading comprehension: Self-monitoring strategies to develop independent readers. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.

Grellet, F. (1981). Developing reading skills: A practical guide to reading comprehension exercises. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hosenfeld, C., Arnold, V., Kirchofer, J., Laciura, J., & Wilson, L. Second language reading: A curricular sequence for teaching reading strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 14, 415-422.

Kramsch, C. (1985). Literary texts in the classroom: A discourse model. The Modern Language Journal, 69(4), 356-366.

Phillips, J. K. (1985). Proficiency-based instruction in reading: A teacher education module. Introductory Packet; Applications Packet; Sample Materials. Material produced in conjunction with a grant from the International Research and Studies Program, U.S. Department of Education.

Silberstein, S. (1994). Techniques and resources in teaching reading. New York: Oxford University Press.

Swaffar, J., Arens, K., & Byrnes, H. (1991). Reading for meaning: An integrated approach to language learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Urquhart, A. H., & Weir, C. (1998). Reading in a second language: Process, product, and practice. New York: Longman.

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Resources: Teaching Writing

Dvorak, T. (1986). Writing in the foreign language. In B. Wing (Ed.), Listening, reading, writing: Analysis and application (pp. 145-167). Northeast Conference Reports. Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference.

Glazer, S. M., & Brown, C. S. (1993). Portfolios and beyond: Collaborative assessment in reading and writing. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.

Graves, D. H. (1983). Writing: Teachers and children at work. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Hewins, C. (1986). Writing in a foreign language: Motivation and the process approach.  Foreign Language Annals, 19(3), 219-223.

Lloyd-Jones, R. (1977). Primary trait scoring. In C. R. Cooper & L. Odell (Eds.), Evaluating writing (pp. 33-66). Urbana, IL: National Council on the Teaching of English.

Terry, R. M. (1989). Teaching and evaluating writing as a communicative skill. Foreign Language Annals, 22(1), 43-54.

Tierney, R. J., Carter, M. A., & Desai, L. E. (1991). Portfolio assessment in the reading-writing classroom . Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.

White, E. (1985). Teaching and assessing writing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Resources: Teaching Culture

Allen, W. W. (1985). Toward cultural proficiency. In Alice C. Omaggio (Ed.), Proficiency, curriculum, articulation: The ties that bind . Reports of the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (pp. 137-166). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference.

Allen, W., & Fouletier-Smith, N. (1995). Parallèles: Communication et culture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

American Association of Teachers of German. (1997). Focus on student standards. AATG Newsletter, 32(2): 9-15.

Birckbichler, D. W. (1995). Ohio's Collaborative Articulation and Assessment Project. ADFL Bulletin 26(3): 44-45.

Brooks, N. (1960). Language and language learning: Theory and practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.

Brooks, N. (1983). Teaching culture in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 16.

Byram, M. (1989). Cultural studies in foreign language education. Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters.

Clark, M. (1976). Second language acquisition as a clash of consciousness. Language Learning 26: 377-389.

Crawford-Lange, L. M., & Lange, D. L. (1984). Doing the unthinkable in the second language classroom: A process for the integration of language and culture. In T. V. Higgs (Ed.), Teaching for proficiency: The organizing principle. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series (pp. 139-177). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

Damen, L. (1987). Culture learning: The fifth dimension in the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fearing, F. (1954). An examination of the conceptions of Benjamin Whorf in the light of theories of perception and cognition. In H. Hoijer (Ed.), Language and culture. Conference on the interrelations of language and other aspects of culture (pp. 47-81). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fiedler, F. E., Mitchell, T., & Triandis, H. C. (1971). The culture assimilator: An approach to cross-cultural training. Journal of Applied Psychology 55: 95-102.

Foreign Languages: Ohio's Model Competency-Based Program. (1996). Columbus, OH: The Ohio Department of Education.

Furnham, A., & Bochner, S. (1989). Culture shock. New York: Routledge.

Galloway, V. (1992). Toward a cultural reading of authentic texts. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Languages for a multicultural world in transition. Northeast Conference Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (pp. 87-121). Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook Company.

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