Appendix A: LEARNING STRATEGIES

METACOGNITIVE STRATEGIES
Strategy Description
Organize / Plan calendar
Calendar
  • Plan the task or content sequence.
  • Set goals.
  • Plan how to accomplish the task.
Manage Your Own Learning pace yourself
Pace Yourself
  • Determine how you learn best.
  • Arrange conditions that help you learn.
  • Seek opportunities for practice.
  • Focus your attention on the task.
Monitor check
Check
While working on a task:
  • Check your progress on the task.
  • Check your comprehension as you use the language. Are you understanding?
  • Check your production as you use the language. Are you making sense?
Evaluate I did it!
I did it!
After completing a task:
  • Assess how well you have accomplished the learning task.
  • Assess how well you have applied the strategies.
  • Decide how effective the strategies were in helping you accomplish the task.
TASK BASED STRATEGIES: USE WHAT YOU KNOW
Strategy Description
Use Background Knowledge I know
I know.
  • Think about and use what you already know to help you do the task.
  • Make associations.
Make Inferences Use Clues
Use Clues
  • Use context and what you know to figure out meaning.
  • Read and listen between the lines.
Make Predictions Crystal Ball
Crystal Ball
  • Anticipate information to come.
  • Make logical guesses about what will happen.
Personalize Me
Me
  • Relate new concepts to your own life, that is, to your experiences, knowledge, beliefs and feelings.
Transfer / Use Cognates telephone
telephone/
telefono/
Telefon/
telefon
  • Apply your linguistic knowledge of other languages (including your native language) to the target language.
  • Recognize cognates.
Substitute / Paraphrase Spare Tire
Spare Tire
  • Think of a similar word or descriptive phrase for words you do not know in the target language.
TASK BASED STRATEGIES: USE YOUR IMAGINATION
Strategy Description
Use Imagery Mirror, Mirror
Mirror, Mirror
  • Use or create an image to understand and/or represent information.
Use Real Objects / Role Play Lights, Camera, Action!
Lights, Camera, Action!
  • Act out and/or imagine yourself in different roles in the target language.
  • Manipulate real objects as you use the target language.
TASK BASED STRATEGIES: USE YOUR ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS
Strategy Description
Find/Apply Patterns Sound Out
Sound Out
  • Apply a rule.
  • Make a rule.
  • Sound out and apply letter/sound rules.
Group/Classify Sort Suits
Sort Suits
  • Relate or categorize words or ideas according to attributes.
Use Graphic Organizers/Take Notes Notepad
Notepad
  • Use or create visual representations (such as Venn diagrams, time lines, and charts) of important relationships between concepts.
  • Write down important words and ideas.
Summarize

Main Idea
  • Create a mental, oral, or written summary of information
Use Selective Attention lookforit
Look for It
  • Focus on specific information, structures, key words, phrases, or ideas.
TASK BASED STRATEGIES: USE A VARIETY OF RESOURCES
Strategy Description
Access Information Sources Read all about it!
Read all about it!
  • Use the dictionary, the internet, and other reference materials.
  • Seek out and use sources of information.
  • Follow a model
  • Ask questions
Cooperate

Together
  • Work with others to complete tasks, build confidence, and give and receive feedback.
Talk Yourself Through It (SelfTalk) I can do it
I can do it!
  • Use your inner resources. Reduce your anxiety by reminding yourself of your progress, the resources you have available, and your goals.