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Essentials of Language Teaching
CARLA’s Content Based Instruction Materials
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Essentials of Language Teaching
By Laura Liu, NCLRC Staff

The NCLRC’s "The Essentials of Language Teaching" supports teachers in creating theory-driven learner-centered instruction and reflective teacher practice. The site may be found at: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/index.htm. It is recommended that the viewer first visit "What Language Teaching Is" to gain a general description of learner-centered instruction and reflective teaching practice, and then to visit the other "Principles" sections to focus on methodology and practice. The Principles focus on helping teachers connect theory to practice and include five main areas:

  1. What Language Teaching Is
  2. Teaching Goals and Methods
  3. Planning a Lesson
  4. Motivating Learners, and
  5. Assessing Learning.

The "Practice" section includes applying theory to goals, methods, activities, materials, and assessment. Each section concludes with a list of references that were used in creating the site. All examples are currently in English. However, links will eventually be added in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish. This site will soon be translated into Arabic as a resource for Arabic teachers!

What Language Teaching Is includes five sections:

  1. Models of Language Teaching and Learning
  2. Reflective Practice
  3. Teaching Portfolios
  4. Be Prepared: Survival Tips for New Language, and
  5. Teachers.

The first section looks at an older and newer model for language learning and compares the costs and benefits of each. The older model sees language as a product of transmission with the teacher transmitting and the learner receiving. The new model sees language learning as a process of discovery in which the learner develops the ability to use the language for specific communication purposes. The language teacher may model language use, but does not simply transmit knowledge. This kind of dynamic learning addresses older model problems of involving only a minority of students and providing students with knowledge, but not necessarily enabling use of it.

Reflective Practice involves a cycle of theory building, practice, and reflection by which the teacher asks, "1) Which teaching model am I using?, 2) How does it apply in specific teaching situations?, and 3) How well is it working?" throughout one’s teaching career.

Teaching Portfolios allow teachers to 1) track their personal development, 2) document their teaching practice for a potential performance review, and 3) illustrate their teaching approach for potential employers. The contents of a portfolio, described in more detail on the website, include 1) the teacher’s background and philosophy, 2) documentation of the teacher’s performance, and 3) evaluations of practice by students, supervisors, etc.

The Survival Tips include finding out what materials and teaching methods you are expected to use; your student names and what level they will have reached; potential mentors who will be able to guide you through the year.

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Teaching Goals and Methods, includes three sections:

  1. Goal: Communicative Competence
  2. Method: Learner-Centered Instruction, and
  3. Guidelines for Instruction.

Communicative competence involves linguistic competence (how to use grammar, syntax, vocabulary), sociolinguistic competence (how to use and respond to language, given the setting, topic, relationships, etc.), discourse competence (how to interpret larger context and make language coherent), and strategic competence (how to recognize/repair language breakdowns or needed language improvement). Learner-centered instruction engages students in the learning process as they help to establish goals, choose learning strategies, and reflect upon or evaluate their learning process. Students who are accustomed to more traditional style of teaching may at first resist learning that places more responsibility on them.

Learner-centered instruction involves 1) providing appropriate input at the learner’s zone of proximal development, 2) using language in authentic ways with authentic materials in the target language, 3) providing context for the topic, vocabulary, and social or cultural expectations, 4) designing activities with a purpose, 5) using task-based activities to encourage students to use the language, 6) encouraging collaboration that addresses any communication gaps, is task oriented, and has a time limit, 7) using an integrated approach by combining modes of communication or combining content fields, 8) addressing grammar consciously, 9) adjusting feedback/error correction to the situation, and 10) including awareness of social, cultural, and historical aspects of language use.

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Planning a Lesson focuses on:

  1. setting lesson goals
  2. structuring a lesson, and
  3. identifying materials and activities.

Setting lesson goals involves identifying a topic for the lesson; identifying specific linguistic content to review or introduce; identifying specific communication tasks to be completed by students; identifying specific learning strategies to be introduced or reviewed; and creating goal statements for each of the above lesson goals.

Structuring the lesson involves five key steps: 1) Preparation, 2) Presentation, 3) Practice, 4) Evaluation, and 5) Expansion. Preparation involves using discussion or homework to elicit student’s current knowledge, using native language comparison to elicit currently used language strategies, and using discussion of background, activities, likes, etc. to elicit knowledge about the topic to be addressed in the activities. Presentation/modeling involves language input from the instructor and the textbook, as well as structured language output by which the students focus on the accuracy of the producing language use modeled for them. Practice involves movement from structured language output to communicative language output. In this stage, students often work in groups, monitored by the teacher, and aim to complete a given communicative task by using the tool of language. In the next stage of evaluation, the teacher seeks to 1) reinforce material presented earlier in the lesson, 2) provide an opportunity for students to raise questions of usage and style, 3) enable the instructor to monitor individual student comprehension and learning, and 4) provide closure to the lesson.

Finally, expansion asks students to apply their learning to new contexts. The teacher should seek to identify materials and activities that are both 1) required (i.e., textbooks, lab materials, etc.) and 2) authentic materials that involve solving genuine problems, accomplishing a goal, using integrated language skills, or completing a defined task determined by the teacher.

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Motivating Learners can be challenging, and this site offers three main ways to approach this task:

  1. understanding language acquisition
  2. promoting engagement in language learning, and
  3. achieving success with learning strategies

The strategy of understanding language acquisition recommends four key teaching strategies: 1) to welcome "interlanguage" (a combination of the native language and new language); 2) to help students learn from "systematic errors," such as applying a learned rule to more than the appropriate language case; 3) to keep the classroom focus on communication rather than error correction; and 4) to teach students that mistakes are learning opportunities.

Promoting engagement in language learning includes encouraging students to communicate ideas, feelings, opinions; identifying out-of-class language learning experiences; asking students to evaluate their progress in functional proficiency.

As students seek to use learning strategies, they should aim to identity the best strategy for the given task while also being flexible in their approach. They should have confidence in their learning ability and expect to reach their learning goal. As students learn to use learning strategies more effectively, they also become more self-reliant and responsible for their own learning. Teachers should aim to build on strategies already used by their students; integrate strategy instruction into the curriculum; be explicit in naming the strategies used; provide students with strategy choices; plan continuous instruction and use the target language as much as is possible.

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Assessing Learning may be accomplished by:

  1. Traditional tests
  2. Alternative assessment
  3. ACTFL guidelines, or
  4. Peer and self-assessment.

Traditional tests test what students know about language, but if communicative competence is the goal, then Alternative assessment often may be more accurate. Such alternative assessment may be formative (ongoing feedback to student) or may be summative (takes place at the end and rates by an external standard). Alternative assessment tends to be based on an authentic task to demonstrate learner ability; focused on communication rather than right vs. wrong; has criteria set by the teacher and the learners; and offers students the opportunity to assess themselves. Authentic assessment activities are built around topics of student interest, replicate real-world contexts, involve multi-stage tasks, require a product or performance, use criteria known to the student, involve interaction between assessor and assessed, and allows for self-evaluation. As such assessment is "alternative" to what students may be accustomed to, teachers need to introduce it gradually while creating a supportive class atmosphere. Students need to be given the rationale for such assessment and have the chance to discuss it.

Two useful authentic assessment tools include checklists and rubrics. While checklists are often used to observe student performance in light of criteria, rubrics offer a more detailed measure of quality of performance. Four types of rubrics include

  1. Holistic rubrics (respond to language as a whole)
  2. Analytic rubrics (divided into separate categories for different dimensions of performance)
  3. Primary trait rubrics (predetermined primary trait for success), and
  4. Multitrait rubrics (several aspects are scored individually).

Authentic assessment should be gradually introduced in the classroom and blended with traditional assessment, until students are comfortable. Peer and self-assessment are further strategies for helping students internalize their work. Before students can assess their peers, they should first practice developing evaluation criteria and applying it as a group, particularly through the use of checklists or rubrics. In self-assessment, students think about their language learning strategies and progress. Students should set (realistic!) goals in order to better evaluate their progress, and may do this in the form of a student-teacher contract. They should be taught strategies for self-monitoring and self-assessment.

Finally, students may self-assess by creating a process or a product portfolio. The former reflects enables formative assessment, while the latter is more summative in nature. Any kind of portfolio should focus on language use and cultural understanding; represent collaborative assessment; represent a student’s range of performance and progress over time; engage students in ongoing learning goals; measure achievement while encouraging uniqueness; address improvement; all for process and product assessment; and link teaching as well as assessment to learning.

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Upon this extensive coverage of these five Principles for the Essentials of Language Teaching, the website includes another set of links for the Practice of the Essentials:

  1. Teaching Grammar (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/grammar/grindex.htm)
  2. Teaching Listening (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/listening/liindex.htm)
  3. Teaching Speaking (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/spindex.htm)
  4. Teaching Reading (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/reading/reindex.htm), and
  5. Teaching Culture (http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/culture/cuindex.htm).

(The section on Teaching Writing is being completed soon) Each of these areas of teaching focus on goals, techniques, strategies, learning activities, textbook use, and assessing knowledge, with links for each of these respective areas. For teachers who will spend part of the summer revising their curriculum and instruction, this site is a great support!

References

  1. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. The Essentials of Language Teaching. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/index.htm.

  2. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Goals and Methods. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/index.htm.

  3. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Motivating Learners. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/motivating/moindex.htm.

  4. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Assessing Learning. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/assessing/asindex.htm.

  5. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Grammar. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/grammar/grindex.htm.

  6. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Listening. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/listening/liindex.htm.

  7. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Speaking. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/spindex.htm.

  8. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Reading. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/reading/reindex.htm.

  9. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Writing. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/writing/wrindex.htm.

  10. Keatley, C., Kennedy, D. Teaching Culture. Retrieved
    February 27, 2007, from National Capital Language Resource Center Web site: http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/culture/cuindex.htm.

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CARLA’s Content Based Instruction Materials
by Laura Blythe Liu

Editor’s note: As we focus this month on Reaching out to Other Content Classes, we are very pleased to provide you with a fantastic resource for teaching language through content-based instruction.

The Center for Advanced Research and Language Acquisition (CARLA) specializes in research and application of using content-based instruction (CBI) to develop students’ foreign language acquisition. CARLA’s website, Content-Based Language Teaching with Technology (CoBaLTT), can be found at: http://www.carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/. This site presents 1) a description of what CBI is and why it is effective, 2) instructional modules using CoBaLTT, 3) CBI-based lesson plans and units, 4) a CoBaLTT unit template, 5) CoBaLTT Bibliographies, and 6) general CoBaLTT Project Information.

CARLA references the work of five researchers in their discussion of the origins and definitions of CBI. A rather apt description of CBI by Crandall & Tucker (1990) states that it is "an approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation of topics or tasks from subject matter classes (e.g., math, social studies) within the context of teaching a second or foreign language" (p. 187). CARLA cites Met (1991) in a qualifier for CBI: "… ‘content’ in content-based programs represents material that is cognitively engaging and demanding for the learner, and is material that extends beyond the target language or target culture" (p. 150). CARLA then continues to cite work by Gabe and Stoller’s (1997) rationale for content-based second language instruction based on research on second language acquisition, instructional strategies, educative and cognitive psychology, as well as program outcomes that support CBI.

CARLA’s CoBaLTT Instructional Modules are ideal for teachers or teacher educators who would like a comprehensive on-line curriculum to develop their use of content-based instruction and technology use in their classroom. The modules provide instruction, information, and resources on the following topics: 1) National Language Standards, 2) Principles of CBI, 3) Curriculum Development for CBI, 4) Instructional Strategies for CBI, 5) Assessment for CBI, and 6) Technology for CBI. As a preliminary activity to reviewing through the six modules (or perhaps afterwards) the viewer has the option to play CoBaLTT Jeopardy, an interactive game in which questions about the information in the six modules are asked. After completing this game, the viewer can then read through the modules with an awareness of CoBaLLT areas they need to learn more about.

The "National Standards" link presents quotes from the ACTFL National Standards’ statement of philosophy, as well as reasons why teachers should learn about the national foreign language standards. The website includes a copy of an Executive Summary of the standards, followed by a comprehension check, key word activities, and two lesson plans focusing on targeted key standards. Also offered are two articles, one by Leloup and Ponterio (1997) and the other by Rosenbusch (1997), both of which are followed by comprehension checks on the main points of their articles. Finally two lesson plans constructed using ACTFL’s National Standards are presented as models.

The "Principles of CBI" introduce the foundations for content-based instruction in second or foreign language teaching contexts. The website emphasizes that CBI is an approach to curriculum and not a method. This approach aims to "1) construct knowledge and develop understandings about a topic and a learning task; 2) use language meaningfully and purposefully; and 3) learn about language in the context of learning through language" (http://www.carla.umn.edu/cobaltt/modules/index.html?standards/main.html). The site presents readings by Met (1999), Genesee (1994), and Grabe and Stoller (1997), all of which are followed by comprehension activities. Met offers an overview of the key principles and notes that programs using CBI may be content-driven, language-driven, or anywhere in between. Genesee considers CBI in immersion instructional settings. Grabe and Stoller present a comprehensive literature review or research both within and outside language education that provides the base for CBI. The Met article is followed by an interactive visual comprehension check focused on key terms discussed. The activities for the next two articles are also interactive, but are straight question-answer activities.

The "Curriculum Development for CBI" link leads to further readings and activities that check for comprehension. Because the integration of language and content, a practice at the core of CBI content, may be new for some teachers, CARLA offers guidance in how to create CBI materials. The website emphasizes that CoBaLTT teachers learn to focus on both content and language in their planning, instruction, and assessment. The three texts included with this like are by Met (1994), Stoller (2002), and Stoller and Grabe (1997). Each of these texts is followed by an interactive question-answer session on the main ideas of the texts. The Curriculum Development for CBI link also offers a template for analyzing a text to create a CBI-based lesson plan. The template asks for the teacher to prepare the lesson’s content, potential cultural assumptions related to the text, the text’s organization, learning strategies to be used by the students, new vocabulary words, as well as grammatical structures and their communicative functions. Four model lesson plans using the template are presented in the languages of French, German, and Spanish. This section of the site concludes with the importance of giving attention to the standards, goals, and objectives used in CBI curriculum development, and gives examples.

The "Instructional Strategies for CBI" link leads to further readings and activities. The site highlights ten core instructional strategies that are important to CBI and cite the work of six different sets of authors in forming the base of their argument for strategy use. The authors whose work appears on this site include Chamot (2001), Met (1994), Stoller (2002), Tedick (2003), Tedick and Gortari (1998), and Cummins (1998). The strategies that are highlighted by the work of these authors include: 1) Building Background, 2) Using Learning Phases, 3) Integrating Modalities, 4) Using Scaffolding Technique, 5) Using Graphic Organizers, 6) Contextualizing Grammar, 7) Providing Meaningful Input, 8) Maximizing Output, 9) Giving/Receiving Feedback, and 10) Using Learning Strategies. Building background refers to helping students activate their existing foundational knowledge. Using learning phases involves a preview phase, a focused-learning phase, and an expansion phase. Integrating modalities (reading, writing, speaking, and listening) is explained by Tedick as being helpful to reinforce conceptual learning; scaffolding techniques are defined by CARLA via reference to Wood, Bruner, and Ross (1976) as "a process that enables a child or novice to solve a problem, carry out a task, or achieve a goal which would be beyond his [or her] unassisted efforts" (p. 90).

Using graphic organizers is noted to be an effective tool, which CARLA help teachers use by presenting a rationale, overview, steps for their use, as well as a model and a template. Contextualizing grammar is emphasized as researchers have found structures to become internalized only if used for meaningful communicative purposes (e.g., DeKeyser & Sokalski, 1996; Salaberry, 1997; Shrum & Glisan, 2000, VanPatten & Cadierno, 1993). Providing meaningful input involves offering "comprehensible" input that is just beyond the student’s current language proficiency level. Maximizing output developed as a response to meaningful input and involves providing the learner with the opportunity to communicate with the target language in meaningful ways. Giving and receiving feedback has found to be most effective when it asks the learner to consider their language use and them try to correct any errors, if needed (Tedick, 2003). Using learning strategies is most researched by Chamot & O’Malley, and emphasizes that students will learn content and language by using learning strategies, particularly if the learner is stepping into more sophisticated use of the language.

The "Assessment for CBI link presents a link to CARLA’s Virtual Assessment Center which provides a foundation in performance assessment as well as why, what, and how to assess. Also found on this site is an article by Tedick & Klee (2004). The site also offers discussion on Integrated Performance Assessment with CBI, which involves evaluating student’s language use in the three communicative modes (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) that correspond to ACTFL’s communication standards. Five example lessons using integrated performance assessment are included, each of which presents the lesson context, overview, and interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational activities.

The "Technology for Language Learning" site introduces the use of the technology modules as well as the National Technology Standards created by the International Society for Technology in Education. The modules include Generic Software, Web Resources 1: Find, Web Resources 2: Use, Web Resources 3: Create, WebQuests, and Telecollaboration. Each technology module offers readings on the specific topic with examples and activities, as well as a template to support creating such skills into one’s curriculum, discussion with other teachers, and additional resources.

Beyond the above six instructional modules, CARLA also offers CoBaLTT lesson plans and units, a unit template, an annotated bibliography, and further project information. Teachers may search for a "steller" unit, CBI unit, or CBI lesson by simply choosing the language and/or title desired, and selections will appear. The "steller" units may be found in French, Japanese, Russian, Spanish. The CBI units may be found in English, French, Spanish. Finally, the CBI lessons may be found in English, French, German, Norwegian, Spanish, and generic lesson plans. Each selection presents the title, lesson description, target age, and target school context (i.e., traditional or immersion), from which the teacher may decide to view the entire lesson, or to select another.

The "CoBaLTT Unit Submission Template" is an online service provided by CARLA for teachers. Each section of the template corresponds with a given instructional module, which is posted for the viewer to preview before beginning a template. The template asks for the user to include the lesson’s title, language, standards, content theme and content area, target audience, proficiency level, time frame, overview, context, and general unit references and resources. The user is then given the option to revise the unit, add a lesson or an assessment to a unit, update personal information, or to finish and be given a URL to share with other teachers who may want to view the lesson plan. An additional feature is that the CoBaLTT staff can provide feedback to the user’s saved lesson plan.

The "CoBaLTT Bibliographies" offers the viewer to search annotated bibliographies for "Content-Based Instruction," "National Standards," or "Assessment." The CBI annotated bibliography can be searched by context, type, author or title, and keywords. Teaching context is the primary search descriptor and includes ESL, immersion, FLES, bilingual education, foreign language K-12 and foreign language post-secondary. The National Standards bibliography may be searched by author or title and keywords, and features articles, books, and online resources. The Assessment bibliography may be searched by modality, type, author or title, and keywords. Modality descriptors include reading, writing, listening, speaking, and culture. Type refers to the kind of assessment for which the viewer is searching. The types of assessment included on this site are classroom-based, performance-based, alternative, portfolio, theory, research, and standards. This website is put together by CARLA’s Assessment Program staff. The "CoBaLTT Project Information" includes further links for 1) the CoBaLTT Professional Development Program, including the summer institute, 2) Publications and Presentations by CARLA, and 3) information about the CoBaLTT staff. The CoBaLTT professional development program includes a week-long summer institute, three 2-day workshops during the year (fall, winter, spring), and the creation of CoBaLTT units.

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How are your tax dollars being spent to provide the resources teachers need to improve foreign language teaching? This month we look at what you can get online from the 15 National Language Resource Centers. Teaching culture, the Less Commonly Taught Languages, and free digital dictionaries for Pashto, and a Chinese version of "Who Wants to be a Millionare?" are among the topics you'll find in this review of the vast offerings of the LRCs....

1. National Heritage Language Resource Center (NHLRC)
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/nhlrc/
(UCLA)
The NHLRC, created by the Center for World Languages and the University of California Consortium for Language Learning and Teaching, focuses on developing pedagogical strategies to teach heritage learners by creating a research base, developing a curricular design as well as materials, and creating teacher education resources. They have developed instructional and curricular guidelines for heritage learner education, founded the Heritage Language Journal, and held teacher workshops on HL issues.

University of California’s Guidelines on Heritage Language Instruction (Nov. 2002)
http://uccllt.ucdavis.edu/Heritage_Language_Guidelines.pdf
This document presents a definition for the term, "heritage learner," key issues in language learning, as well as 11 suggested guidelines for heritage language learning in terms of 1) recruiting and motivating heritage learners, 2) advanced proficiency certificate, 3) placement exams, 4) separate tracks/sequences, 5) curriculum design, 6) materials development, 7) training and professional development, 8) the role of technology in instruction and professional development, 9) sharing resources within and across campuses, 10) research, and 11) outreach and articulation.

Curriculum Guidelines for Heritage Language Classrooms at the University of California (Feb. 2003)
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/heritagelanguages/article.asp?parentID=24734
This document originated in February of 2003 when the Heritage Language Focus Group met at UCLA to design curriculum guidelines for heritage language instruction at the University of California, supplementing Guidelines on Heritage Language Instruction.
The document begins with a discussion of the need for heritage language curriculum before focusing on three major areas to develop: 1) assessment, 2) instructional materials, and 3) teacher training. Issues of assessment to consider include placement of heritage learners; the section on instructional materials discusses inclusion of culturally significant and authentic materials; issues for teacher training include balancing the different needs of both heritage and foreign language learners in the same classroom.

UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) for the Less Commonly Taught Languages
http://www.lmp.ucla.edu/
UCLA’s LMP is an on-line bibliographic database of teaching and learning materials for over 100 Less Commonly Taught Languages that offers full bibliographic information with detailed annotation for each item in the database. The LMP, created in 1992, is funded by the U.S. Department of Education and is a unit of the UCLA Center for World Languages. A National Advisory Committee, composed of nationally recognized foreign language pedagogy experts, work to evaluate, monitor, and validate the LMP's scope and research methodology.
The LMP offers a wide variety of resources, including language portals, materials reports, authentic materials, an institutional database, and a teaching materials database. The language portals include links to relevant websites, a descriptive language profile including key dialects, grammatical features, linguistic history, and a map. The materials report includes a summary of language materials in the database and their availability. The authentic materials site goes into further depth on the materials and their use in the classroom. The institutional database, run by the University of Minnesota’s CARLA, includes 2,000 North American institutions that teach less commonly taught languages. The teaching materials database also includes LCTL materials and is run by the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington D.C.

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2. Center for Language Education and Research
http://clear.msu.edu/clear/aboutus/
Michigan State University
The Center of Language Education and Research (CLEAR) at Michigan State University was established in 1996 as a Language Resource Center (LRC), and their current projects are arranged into five categories: 1) Web-Based Materials Development Projects, 2) Professional Development Projects, 3) Evaluation/Assessment Projects, 4) Collaborative Projects, and 5) Research Projects.

CLEAR's current (2006-2007) projects for Web-Based Materials Development Projects include 1) Rich Internet Applications for Language Learning and 2) Modules for Interactive Multimedia Education and Assessment. Current projects for Professional Development Projects include 1) Onsite Teacher Development Workshops, 2) Summer Workshops , 3) Summer Institutes for LCTL teachers, and 4) Future Faculty Development. Current Evaluation/Assessment Projects include 1) Interactive Proficiency Assessment Training, 2) The Role of the Workshop in Teacher Development, and 3) A Unified Model for the Assessment of LCTL Learning. Current Collaborative Projects include 1) Language Learning & Technology, 2) World Languages Day, 3) Introductory Business Language for LCTLs, 4) Critical Incidents and Intercultural Communication in Business, and 5) Cultural Interviews with Korean Executives. Finally, Current Research Projects include 1) The Use of Subtitles During Video-Based Listening Activities and 2) Language Aptitude and LCTL Learning.

e-LCTL Initiative: Prioritizing Instruction in LCTLs
http://elctl.msu.edu/prioritizing.php
Michigan State University
The e-LCTL Initiative works nationally to build a consensus about the criteria that should be used for setting priorities among the less commonly taught languages for instruction in the U.S. This consensus is created by consulting key Title VI community stakeholders: National Resource Centers, Language Resource Centers, Centers for International Business Education and Research, and the American Overseas Research Centers, as well as college and university language professionals, and administrators in funding agencies and the federal government. The "Title VI regions," though no longer rigid categories, originally were defined by the regions of the Department of State as: Africa, Central or Inner Asia, East Asia, Eastern Europe and Russia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands, and Western Europe. The e-LCTL initiative has convened national discussions for foreign language and area specialists about how to apply the criteria to languages in each world region for deciding which LCTLs should be given priority for developing academic year, summer, and distance learning courses, as well as the requisite learning materials

National Language Offerings and Enrollments at Title VI Centers
http://elctl.msu.edu/summaries/
This website includes language offerings at Title VI centers, U.S. Foreign Service Institutes, U.S. Defense Language Institutes, and other institutions for the following regions: Africa, Central or Inner Asia, East Asia, Eastern Europe and Russia, Latin American and the Caribbean, Middle East, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands, Western Europe, and general International regions.

Database of Electronic Materials for Teaching & Learning Less Commonly Taught Languages
http://elctl.msu.edu/aboutdb.php
As part of this e-LCTL Initiative, a dedicated team of trained researchers at Michigan State University has created a database of digital-format resources for learning and teaching less commonly taught languages. The database includes language modules, learning objects, and individual plans for developing distance learning (DL) courses. This database is intended as a planning tool, chiefly for the use of curriculum planners and funding agencies that seek to foster the development of DL courses for the LCTLs, and also for individual language teachers looking to construct a DL course or to locate colleagues with whom to collaborate in creating such courses

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3. Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition
http://www.carla.umn.edu/institutes/index.html
University of Minnesota
The mission of CARLA is to study multilingualism and multiculturalism, to develop knowledge of second language acquisition, and to advance the quality of second language teaching, learning, and assessment by: 1) conducting research and action projects, 2) sharing research-based and other forms of knowledge across disciplines and education systems, and 3) extending, exchanging, and applying this knowledge in the wider society. CARLA has sponsored an internationally known summer institute program for second language teachers since 1996, which focuses on connecting research with practice and sharing research findings with teachers and their second language learners. Workshops link theory to practice through discussion, theory-building, activities, and networking.

Culture and Language Learning
http://www.carla.umn.edu/culture/
The Culture and Language Learning initiatives sponsored by CARLA explore the connection between language and culture learning in an interdisciplinary manner. These initiatives build on the premise that neither culture nor language can be fully understood when taught separately from the other. This initiative includes the Maximizing Study Abroad guidebooks, CARLA summer institutes on culture and language learning, as well as an extensive compilation of resources and websites on culture and language issues.

Less Commonly Taught Languages Data Base
http://www.carla.umn.edu/lctl/db/
One of the main objectives of the Less Commonly Taught Languages Project is to track information on locations in North America where students can study specific less commonly taught languages. The database contains information on course offerings for over 300 languages at more than 2,000 colleges and universities in North America, and at elementary, middle and high schools. More than 25 Less Commonly Taught Languages are listed on the distance education database of credit courses. CARLA encourages the submission of summer courses and will list them promptly.

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4. National African Languages Resource Center
http://lang.nalrc.wisc.edu/nalrc/
The University of Wisconsin-Madison
The National African Language Resource Center, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was established in September 1999 as a federally funded, nonprofit national foreign language center. The Center's mission is to serve the entire community of African language educators and learners in the United States by sponsoring a wide range of educational and professional activities designed to improve the accessibility and quality of African language instruction in the United States. The Center encourages a variety of pedagogical approaches to accommodate learner diversity, and advocates the integration of language and culture learning and the acquisition of fluency in these areas. It facilitates dialogue among teachers, learners, and administrators from a wide variety of cultural and institutional perspectives, and promotes the profession of African language teaching.

The NALRC’s established goals are to: 1) provide resources and training to enhance the teaching and learning of African languages; 2) establish and maintain networks among African language teachers, professional language teacher associations, and other foreign language centers; 3) coordinate African language teaching and learning resources available in the United States; 4) disseminate information and materials on the teaching and learning of African languages; and 5) evaluate and promote African language instructional programs

A Second Language Acquisition Program for African Language Instructors
http://lang.nalrc.wisc.edu/nalrc/news/announcement/summer2006.htm
As interest in African language learning and teaching increases, so does the need to prepare graduate students, teaching assistants who are planning to pursue African language teaching as a profession, and faculty members in the field who need retooling. The two-week intensive Summer 2006 Institute will train fellows in a number of crucial areas central to the effective operation of an African Language Program: 1) teaching the skills of speaking and listening in the African language classroom; 2) teaching the skills of writing and reading in the African language classroom; 3) testing and assessing the four skills in the African language classroom; and 4) lesson planning and classroom management. Participants will move from a theoretical overview to hands-on practice in teaching and assessing the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Yoruba!
http://lang.nalrc.wisc.edu/nalrc/yoruba/index.html
The University of Wisconsin-Madison offers a Yoruba program, part of the Department of African Languages and Literature. The department has offered Yoruba classes since the 70's and made Yoruba a formal program in 1989. Since then, the program has offered elementary, intermediate, and advanced Yoruba, and a Yoruba culture course taught in English. All of the courses are open to both undergraduate and graduate students. The course instructor, Antonia Schleicher, earned her Ph.D. in Linguistics from the University of Kansas, Lawrence. Within the UW-Madison Department of African Languages and Literature she has taught African linguistics, Yoruba language and culture at all levels, as well as Yoruba life and civilization. Yoruba is one of the three main languages of Nigeria. There are about 20 million speakers of the language in the south western part of Nigeria. It has about twenty dialects which show phonological and lexical differences. Some of these dialects are also spoken around the border of Nigeria and the Republic of Benin and part of Togo. The language has also survived in Cuba (where it is called Lukumi) and in Brazil (where it is called Nago).

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5. The Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures
http://deall.osu.edu/default.cfm
The Ohio State University
The Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures (DEALL) in the College of Humanities at The Ohio State University is one of the largest programs of its kind in the continental United States. It offers undergraduate degrees in Chinese and Japanese language and literature, as well as a growing number of courses in Korean language and culture. The graduate program offers the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in both Chinese and Japanese in the areas of literature, linguistics, and language pedagogy. DEALL's undergraduate language programs offer one of the most extensive and diverse curricula in the country. They include innovative programs such as the Individualized Track and the Intensive Track language programs, which are offered throughout the regular academic year, as well as the Intensive Track Summer Language Immersion Programs in Chinese and Japanese. Furthermore, DEALL offers an impressive array of specialized courses in the summer including intensive workshops designed to instruct teachers of Chinese and Japanese in the art of language teaching at both the college and secondary school levels. Developments in the near future include a summer courses on Chinese drama and film.

Chinese Language Teachers Association
http://clta.osu.edu/mission.htm
The Association is committed to improving the professional status of Chinese language teachers, to promoting the teaching of Chinese in colleges and high schools, and to addressing issues critical to the effective learning and teaching of the Chinese language. It sponsors conferences, seminars, and workshops for members to exchange ideas on topics related to Chinese studies. CLTA also administers awards recognizing superior scholarship in Chinese language-related topics. In addition to a website for information dissemination, the Association publishes a journal, a newsletter, a monograph series, and occasional publications to facilitate communication among members in the profession.

Modern Chinese Literature and Culture
http://mclc.osu.edu/
This website is an expansive resource for materials relating to modern Chinese literature and culture, including the following: publications, journals, and catalogues; book reviews; education texts; print and electronic bibliographies relating to modern Chinese literature (including translations, general studies, author studies, important reference works, MCLC biographies of modern Chinese authors, Lu Xun studies; and links to works of Chinese literature in Chinese); websites with Chinese e-text (http://mclc.osu.edu/rc/etext.htm); websites of on-going research projects in Chinese literature, film, music, art, etc.; on-line courses; and an image archive including images related to literature, film/media, culture, history, and art from the time periods of the Late Qing, Republican China, Maoist China, Post-Mao China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.

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6. South Asia Language Resource Center
http://salrc.uchicago.edu/about/
The University of Chicago
South Asia is one of the most linguistically diverse areas of the world with four language families comprised of more than 650 individual languages. Because of this astonishing linguistic diversity, no single U.S. university has the resources to address the demand for expertise. SALRC is structured to assist in meeting this pressing need. Universities currently designated by the U.S. Department of Education as Title VI National Resource Centers for South Asia established the South Asia Language Resource Center to meet this need for expertise. The South Asia Language Resource Center’s focus is to: 1) create and disseminate new resources for teaching and research on South Asian languages; 2) offer advanced courses in language pedagogy in conjunction with the South Asia Summer Language Institute; 3) develop a shared infrastructure for delivery and archiving of South Asia language resources; and 4) share infrastructure and approaches with other LRCs and institutions having overlapping language interests in the Middle East and Central Asia.

South Asia Summer Language Institute
http://sasli.wisc.edu/
SASLI offers an 8-week program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison open to undergraduates, graduate students and non-student professionals to study modern South Asian languages at elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels. Students may only register for one language per summer, the equivalent of two full semesters of academic study. Upon completion of the program, students will receive 8 credits and a letter grade. Classroom hours of instruction are Monday through Friday, four hours per day. Expected first and second year level offerings include Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Sanskrit, Sinhala, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu, Tibetan, and Urdu. Expected third year level offerings include Nepali and Tibetan.

The Digital South Asia Library
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/
DSAL is a project of the Center for Research Libraries that provides digital references for research on South Asia, including scholarly reference books and a link to full text dictionaries at Digital Dictionaries of South Asia (DDSA); periodical indexes and document delivery mechanisms; maps and catalogs of maps, ranging from historical to topographic; pedagogical books, journals and newspapers; and a link to SARAI, South Asia Resource Access on the Internet.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/
Affiliated with the Digital South Asia Library, Digital Dictionaries of South Asia provides full-text digital dictionaries in numerous languages, including Pashto, Tamil, Telugu, Bengali, and Hindi, among many others.

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7. Center for Languages of the Central Asian Region
http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/
Indiana University
The Center for the Languages of the Central Asian Region (CeLCAR) is dedicated to promoting the teaching and learning of the languages and cultures of Central Asia. CeLCAR develops textbooks, multimedia resources, and distance language learning courses for Pashto, Tajik, Uyghur, Uzbek, and Kazakh, as well as improved teacher training in these languages. CeLCAR is one of fourteen Title VI Foreign Language Resource Centers in the United States and the only one dedicated to the critical languages of the Central Asian region.

Podcasts
http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/podcasts.php
The Center for Languages of Central Asia (CeLCAR) is adapting its collection of on-line Kazakh, Pashto, Tajik, Uzbek and Uyghur language materials for mobile devices. Texts are available in spoken and written formats along with basic vocabulary items glossed in English. CeLCAR selects news articles from native speaker news sites and composes a summary in simplified standard language for each week. The center composes texts on various contemporary topics in Central Asian cultures at a level appropriate for learners. Exercises for these texts are available at the CeLCAR website and will soon be incorporated into the downloadable material. Language Learning Podcasts are updated weekly from the CeLCAR offices on the campus of Indiana University. Students are encouraged to subscribe to the language podcasts of their choice to receive updated lessons or may visit our website regularly to download the material directly from us.

Video Podcasts
http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/media/uzbekpod/poduz.html
This is the archive of Introductory Uzbek taught in 2006 by Nigora Azimova of CeLCAR. It is a Distance Learning Course with Indiana University, Ohio State University and University of Iowa. The archive includes sessions sorted by date.

Inner Asian and Uralic Language Resource Center
http://www.indiana.edu/~iaunrc/beta/index.html
In 1962, IU became home to the Uralic and Altaic Language and Area Center, which in 1981 was renamed the Inner Asian and Uralic National Resource Center (IAUNRC). IU's greatest concentration of expertise and instruction is located within the Department of Central Eurasian Studies (CEUS) with faculty who study civilizations stretching from the Baltics, Hungary, and Turkey to Central Asia, Tibet, and Mongolia, and who pursue historical and contemporary analysis in anthropology, business, comparative literature, economics, folklore, history, journalism, linguistics, music and drama, political science, public administration, and religious studies. The Department of Central Eurasian Studies offers three levels of instruction in living languages indigenous to the area’s regions: Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Mongolian, Persian/Tajik, Tibetan, Turkish and Uzbek, as well as some courses in Chagatai, Evenki, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mordvin, Tibetan, Turkmen, and Uyghur. Undergraduates can earn a certificate or an individualized major in Central Eurasian Studies and future specialists can earn an M.A. or Ph.D.

Indiana University houses outstanding print and electronic resources for Inner Asian and Uralic studies. The main library holds 100,000 volumes on Central Eurasia, including the largest Tibetan and Estonian collections of any American university. IU’s specialized collections also include another 35,000 items relevant to the Center’s area. The Center continues to build its collections, while also making them more accessible. IAUNRC's creates new curriculum materials for teaching about Central Eurasia at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels. Center faculty serve government, business, philanthropic organizations, as well as other post-secondary institutions.

Inner Asian and Uralic Teaching Resources
http://www.indiana.edu/~iaunrc/beta/outreach/teaching_resources.html
IAUNRC provides teachers will classroom-ready units on Central Asia, the Baltics, and Tibet and Mongolia.

Summer Workshop in Slavic, East European and Central Asian Languages
http://www.indiana.edu/~iuslavic/swseel/
Intensive language training has been offered at the Bloomington campus of Indiana University since 1950. The Summer Workshop, from June 15-August 10, provides up to 200 students of Slavic, East European and Central Asian languages the opportunity to complete a full year of college language instruction during the eight-week summer session. Utilizing the resources of Indiana University's own specialists as well as native speakers from other universities and abroad, the Summer Workshop has developed and maintained a national program of the highest quality. The program has as its goal the enhancement of speaking, reading, listening and writing skills through classroom instruction and a full range of extra-curricular activities.

Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies
http://www.indiana.edu/~rifias/
Established in 1967 as the Asian Studies Research Institute (ASRI), the Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies (RIFIAS) assumed its present name in 1979. It is an independent, non-profit institution. The mission of the RIFIAS is to encourage and support scholarly research in all aspects of Inner Asian Studies, including maintaining and developing scholarly and technical resources necessary for research. The RIFIAS has developed an invaluable library collection of reference works, monographs, and microfilms of print and manuscript materials on Inner Asian subjects. The RIFIAS also extensively publishes for the research and educational community.

Slavica Publishers
http://www.slavica.com/index.html
Slavica Publishers, a division of Indiana University since 1997, was founded in 1966. Slavica is the leading U.S. specialty press devoted to scholarly monographs, collections of research articles, textbooks, reference works, and journals serving the field of Slavic languages and literatures, as well as Slavic and East European studies in general. The site offers Slavic resources (in some cases divided into East, West, South, and General Slavic resources) for textbooks, literature, linguistics, and history, as well as six newer Slavic journals and two older Slavic journals.

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8. Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research
http://calper.la.psu.edu/index.php
Pennsylvania State University
The Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research (CALPER) at the Pennsylvania State University is one of the fifteen LRCs in the United States. Congruent with the charge of the LRCs, CALPER conducts research to inform foreign language pedagogy, develops language teaching and learning materials and assessment procedures and provides an array of educational opportunities for language professionals. CALPER's particular focus is to improve the environment of advanced-level foreign language teaching, learning and assessment.

Teaching Advanced Chinese with Authentic Materials: A Sample
http://www.alc.ucla.edu/Chinese/CALPER/
The Chinese CALPER project collects authentic discourse data from native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and, on the basis of this collection, explores the grammar of spoken Chinese and eventually builds teaching materials for classroom use and self study. The CALPER collection includes over 60 hours of conversational interaction of a wide range of topics in a variety of communicative settings. The collection presents sample materials to show advantages of using a large collection of authentic discourse for language learning and teaching. Some practical pedagogical guidance is provided. Samples and approaches presented are not meant to be comprehensive, but to stimulate discussion and solicit feedback from colleagues from the field. An example lesson is posted below:

Who Wants to be a Millionaire?
http://www.alc.ucla.edu/Chinese/CALPER/Millionaire/Millionaire_intro.htm
This lesson presents a sample of everyday conversations where speakers describe things; in this particular case, the speakers talk about their favorite TV show: the Chinese version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. When they comment on objects such as TV shows, they describe what is involved, why it is interesting, how things compare with others, and, often they give details or episodes of events to make the conversation interesting.

When working on the text, Chinese language students are encouraged to pay attention to 1) how comparative structures are used for both similar things and unlike things; 2) how speakers express different degrees and qualities; and 3) how speakers express an opinion with qualifying (non-straightforward) and vague expressions.

Russnet
http://www.russnet.org/home.php
Russnet, of The American Councils for International Education, is a repository for Russian Language Resources which includes its own collection of Russian Language Modules. These thematic learning modules combine learning culture with learning Russian and include the following courses: 1) Russnet Keyboard Practice: a mini-module to introduce you and your students to typing with the Russnet keyboard, 2) Business Russian: interactive modules offering materials for novice, intermediate and advanced learners, 3) The High School to College Articulation Project: materials appropriate for use with advanced learners of Russian, 4) A Cultural Map of Russia: exploration of the people and places of Russia's diverse regions, 5) Additional Materials: online and downloadable materials for learning and teaching Russian. All materials are free, though it is required to register and log-in in order to obtain access to the website materials.

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9. National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center
http://www.nflrc.iastate.edu/homepage.html
National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center
The NFLRC is a unique collaborative effort among the Iowa State University Departments of Curriculum and Instruction and Foreign Languages and Literatures, the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC, and leaders in the field of K-12 foreign language education who are based in school districts and institutions of higher education. The NFLRC's work focuses on five goals:

1) Collaboration – This mission is addressed through collaboration among elementary and secondary teachers, district supervisors of foreign language, post secondary teacher educators, foreign language organizations, school districts, colleges universities, Language Resource Centers, and National Resource Centers. Individuals and organizations collaborate on providing the initiatives of the NFLRC and on carrying the impact of these initiatives to a wider audience.

2) Training – The NFLRC’s professional development initiatives respond to national needs defined in the professional literature. NFLRC institutes enhance participants’ knowledge and skills in language and content, build leadership capability, and establish collaborative professional relationships. 3) Research – The Center for Applied Linguistics and the NFLRC conduct research on performance assessment, new teaching methods, and the use of advanced educational technology that is designed to improve the learning of K-12 students and pre- and in-service teachers.

3) Development and Dissemination – Materials that serve as innovative and invaluable resources to teachers, parents, policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, and professional organizations and research results that address key issues in the profession are published and disseminated widely by the NFLRC.

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10. National Foreign Language Resource Center
http://www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/prodev.cfm
University of Hawaii

Pragmatics and Language Learning Conference
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/prodev/pll/
The conference will address a broad range of topics in pragmatics, discourse, interaction and sociolinguistics in their relation to second and foreign language learning, education, and use, approached from a variety of theoretical and methodological perspectives. One of the colloquiums included in the conference is titled Negotiating the Self in Another Language: Identity Formation and Cross-cultural Adaptation Among Second Language Users. It will examine how experiences of L2 learning and use operate as sites for transformations of the self through the formation of new identities. The papers extend current understandings of how L2 learning is shaped by, and shapes, who learners are, as well as the consequences this identity formation has on L2 use.

Identity and Second Language Learning: Local Japanese Learning Japanese in Hawaii (2000) by Sugita, Megumi
http://www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/networks/NW18/NW18.pdf
This is an ethnographic case study of four Japanese American university students studying the Japanese language in Hawaii. Drawing on Rampton's (1990) concepts of language expertise, inheritance, and affiliation, this study investigates the role of the Japanese language in the construction of the students' identities. Moving beyond Rampton's discussion, the careful examination of the relationship between the individual students and their study of Japanese provides a more accurate understanding of these concepts. The findings reveal that the students' language inheritance and affiliation, which are understood as their "continuity" with other Japanese Americans in Hawaii and their "connection" to the language and culture in Japan respectively, have different significance for each student. By paying sufficient attention to these two aspects, which are both important factors in the construction of the students' identities, teachers can integrate the National Standards for Japanese into their classroom more successfully.

Mandarin Chinese: Four-year Instructional Goals, Curriculum Outline, and Institutional Measures by Ning, Cynthia
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/NetWorks/NW47.pdf
This curriculum outline includes student profiles, objectives, and an instructional outline for a Chinese language core program which utilizes a performance-based methodology. The Chinese core program offers four levels of instruction in Mandarin Chinese, using performance-based methodology (function driven, focusing on authentic texts and tasks appropriate to each level, interactive, student centered standardized assessment instruments will provide pre-instructional/ post-instructional performance standards), and with commensurate attention to practical (little c) culture.

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11. The Center for Applied Second Language Studies
http://casls.uoregon.edu/
University of Oregon
CASLS is a K-16 National Foreign Language Resource Center promoting international literacy by supporting communities of educators and by partnering with those communities to develop a comprehensive system of proficiency-based tools for lifelong language learning and teaching. CASLS adheres to a grass-roots philosophy based on the following principles: 1) Teachers are the solution, not the problem. Support them, don't preach to them; 2) All children have the ability to learn a second language and should be provided with that opportunity; 3) The purpose of language learning is meaningful communication; and 4) Meeting the needs of teachers and students is our top priority.

The Oregon Flagship Program
http://casls.uoregon.edu/ORflagship/
The Oregon K-16 Chinese Flagship was chosen by the National Security Education Program (NSEP) to develop a national model of K-16 language education to produce Superior -level speakers of Chinese. The UO Center for Applied Second Language Studies (CASLS) and Portland Public Schools form a partnership to provide high-quality language learning beginning in kindergarten and continuing through college. CASLS’ expertise in language acquisition, proficiency assessment, and data-driven approaches to education combined with PPS' leadership in immersion education will be brought to bear on the challenge of meeting the nation's need for highly proficient Chinese language users able to function effectively in professional settings. The Oregon K-16 Flagship integrates content-based learning, experiential learning, and explicit instruction to ensure that learners can communicate effectively on academic and professional topics. PPS students in both the World Languages Institute for heritage speakers and the Chinese Immersion Program will learn regular curricular content in Chinese accompanied by explicit instruction to sharpen accuracy, and apply what they learn to real-life situations. The lessons learned in implementing this approach will inform future K-16 Flagships envisioned in the National Security Language Initiative.

The National Online Early Language Learning Assessment (NOELLA).
http://casls.uoregon.edu/noellaflyers/noella_news_1.pdf
NOELLA is an online assessment of early language learning to serve as a measuring stick all language teachers can use. Excerpt from the article’s introduction: "At some point, all teachers wonder if they are teaching the right things, if their students are really learning what they do teach, and whether students can use what they learn in the classroom in the outside world. Sometimes we hear back from teachers at upper levels that our former students are doing great – or not so great. What if we had a tool, a ‘measuring stick,’ to tell us about the proficiency of children coming into our classes, then tell us how our present students are doing, and how our former students do as they articulate upwards? If we all use the same measuring stick, wouldn’t it help us talk to each other and work together to build articulated programs that lead to higher proficiency?"

Is Chinese the future of business? The Chinese Flagship Program aims to give students an edge in a multilingual, corporate world, by Jobetta Hedelman (11/01/06)
Click Here to see the site.
Excerpt from article’s introduction: "The next generation of University students may be far more prepared than their peers for work in the international community, thanks to a one-of-a-kind program just started this year. The Chinese Flagship Program, the only program of its kind in the nation, provides students with a chance to develop fluency in Mandarin while studying their chosen major, Carl Falsgraf, director of the University's Center for Applied Second Language Studies, said. The program is funded through a grant from the National Security Education Program created in 1993. ‘Security requires intelligence - an understanding of other languages and other cultures,’ he said. Problematically, very few Americans know "critical languages" like Chinese, Arabic, Persian and Korean, Falsgraf said. In the coming years, Chinese proficiency will become a vital skill because China is becoming either a U.S. rival or a partner in most industries."

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12. National Middle East Language Resource Center
http://www.nmelrc.org/index.php?&MMN_position=1:1
Brigham Young University
In August of 2002 the U.S. Department of Education announced the creation of the National Middle East Language Resource Center, the first Title VI Language Resource Center to focus solely on the languages of the Middle East. The NMELRC, with its headquarters at Brigham Young University, represents a consortium of language experts from more than twenty universities. NMELRC works with Middle East language professionals and other Title VI centers across the country to coordinate efforts for increasing and improving opportunities for learning the languages of the Middle East. It focuses on teacher training, materials development, testing and assessment, integration of pedagogy and technology, study abroad, and K-12 programs.

Re-embracing Diversity: Educational Outreach for Muslim Sensitivity
http://www.outreachworld.org/resource.asp?curriculumid=174
On February 14, 2002, Columbia University's Muslim Communities in New York City Project, supported by the Ford Foundation, hosted a one-day in-service training for over one hundred New York City high school teachers. This special program, (Re)embracing Diversity in New York City Public Schools: Educational Outreach for Muslim Sensitivity, provided teachers with a fully integrated mini-curriculum that addresses the problem of intolerance towards Arab-, South Asian- and Muslim-Americans in the wake of the tragic events of 9/11.

The curriculum (Re)embracing Diversity combines a wealth of information about Islam and Muslims with interactive classroom activities that foster the critical importance of tolerance and respect for ethnic and religious diversity. For the convenience of teachers, the curriculum is downloadable either in its entirety or as individual lesson plans depending on students' needs or interests. Also, most lessons include one or more handouts, but these must be downloaded separately from the instructor's guide. For questions or further information about (Re)embracing Diversity or the Muslims in New York City Project at Columbia University.

Abrahamic Religions
http://www.outreachworld.org/resource.asp?curriculumid=43
This exercise is intended to communicate information about the three major monotheistic religions of the Middle East, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Images in this slide show evoke beliefs, events, symbols, institutions and practices important to the three religions. The main purpose is to impress upon the students the many things that these three religions have in common, as well as their differences, which should lead to greater understanding and respect for the beliefs of others.

Arabic Online Resources
http://www.nmelrc.org/index.php?module=pagemaster & PAGE_user_op=view_page& PAGE_id=9&MMN_position=22:19
This website offers a wide variety of on-line resources supportive of learning Arabic, including Internet-based learning resources, news articles, employment and learning resources, among others.

2007 NMELRC Arabic Teacher Training Seminar in Austin
http://www.nmelrc.org/index.php?module=pagemaster&PAGE_user_op=view_page&PAGE_id=1&MMN_position=51:19
The National Middle East Language Resource Center NMELRC announces its fifth Arabic Teacher Training Seminar, to be held August 6-11, 2007, inclusive, at the University of Texas, Austin. The seminar will be led by Professors Kristen Brustad and Mahmoud Al-Batal. The seminar will be conducted entirely in Arabic. The seminar will address a variety of areas related to teaching, including: 1) course syllabus design, 2) teaching reading comprehension, 3) teaching listening comprehension, 4) teaching vocabulary, 5) utilizing group work in class, and 6) testing

The American Association of Teachers of Turkic
http://www.princeton.edu/~turkish/aatt/
The American Association of Teachers of Turkic Languages, founded in 1985 as the American Association of Teachers of Turkish, is a private, non-profit, non-political organization of individuals interested in the languages of the Turks. In 1993, the members voted to expand and include all languages of the Turks. The objective of the Association is 1) to advance and improve the teaching of the languages of the Turks; 2) to promote study, criticism, and research in the field of the languages and literatures of the Turks; and 3) to further the common interests of teachers of these subjects.

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13. The Center for Educational Resources in Culture, Language and Literacy (CERCLL)
http://cercll.arizona.edu/about/
University of Arizona
The majority of CERCLL's projects focus on the teaching and learning needs of the LCTLs, and many are aimed at increasing the nation's capacity to produce Americans with advanced proficiency in the LCTLs, through development, assessment, publication and dissemination of instructional LCTL materials. In accordance with the invitational priorities, we have several projects that include languages spoken in the Middle East and have been developed with UA's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES); we also have projects developed in collaboration with UA's Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS), another Title VI LRC. Our projects will encompass culture and literacy as we 1) conduct and disseminate research on new and improved methods for teaching foreign languages, including the use of advanced educational technology; 2) develop and disseminate new teaching materials reflecting the results of such research in effective teaching strategies; 3) develop, apply and disseminate performance assessments for use as a standard and comparable measurement of skill levels in all languages; and 4) train teachers in the administration and interpretation of performance tests, the use of effective teaching strategies, and the use of new technologies.

Center for Latin American Studies at the University of AZ: Featured Educator Resources
http://las.arizona.edu/resources/academic_institutions.html
This website provides teachers with educator resources and resources from academic institutions and organizations, including the following links: 1) Latin America School & Educator Resources at Michigan State University: a web site for middle and high school teachers and students who are learning about Latin America in social sciences and humanities classes; 2) Arizona Geographic Alliance: an alliance providing outreach and educator events as well as a variety of educator resources online, including lesson plans, maps and social studies standards information; and 3) Latin American Network Information Center: information on outreach materials, newsletters and events.

Learning Technologies Center
http://ltc.arizona.edu/
The LTC connects UA faculty, instructors, TAs and staff to the latest advancements in Instructional Technology. Our staff provides guidance, training and production assistance to turn "ideas" into "reality." To see how we've helped faculty transform their own ideas into reality we invite you to take a look at our testimonials.

Podcasting
http://ltc.arizona.edu/resources_tools_podcasting.cfm
Podcasting has enormous educational uses. According to EDUCAUSE’s The Horizon Report –2006, podcasting, is "at the leading edge of a wave that will last for the next several years and beyond." Instructional podcasts can include class lectures, presentations, material complementary to course content, and student reviews for exams.

For instructors: 1) Podcasting has little or no costs associated with it; 2) If you are teaching a distance course, podcasting will connect you in new ways to your students; 3) Faculty can make special podcasts in which they highlight course content that they want students to master. This can be especially helpful to students studying for exams

For students: 1) Podcasting has little or no costs associated with it; 2) Podcasting enables students to learn outside the classroom; 3) Students can listen to your podcasts on-the-go by syncing your podcasts to their iPods and playing through their car radio or listening as they walk across campus. In addition, some cell phones now come MP3-enabled

Partnerships Across Languages
http://www.coh.arizona.edu/pal/membership.htm
Through membership with PAL, teachers express their interest in the promotion of second language education in Southern Arizona. Their affiliation with PAL facilitates access to teacher development opportunities, teaching resources, and to discussions and ideas which can keep teachers professionally informed and connected to projects and grants that impact teaching in the second language classroom. Teachers can also become a school contact for PAL or join the Steering Committee which meets monthly.

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14. Center for World Languages
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/
UCLA
In 2005, the Center for World Languages (CWL) was created within UCLA's International Institute. At the core of the CWL are two highly-respected campus units, both of which have a lengthy history of collaboration and involvement in language-related projects. These are the UCLA Language Resource Center (LRC), founded in 1980 by Russell N. Campbell, and the university's Academic English unit, with a history reaching back to the early 1950's. The overriding goal of the Center is to continue the tradition of language innovation and professional development initiated by the LRC and to advocate for language learning and teaching, especially with regard to heritage and less commonly taught languages. The official mission of CWL is 1) to conduct research that increases understanding of language acquisition, teaching and assessment; 2) to design, manage and evaluate language programs; and 3) to build partnerships that extend our expertise to academic institutions, government agencies and private organizations.

Curriculum Guidelines for Heritage Language Classrooms at the University of California
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/heritagelanguages/article.asp?parentID=24734#materials
This document originated in February of 2003 when the Heritage Language Focus Group met at UCLA to design curriculum guidelines for heritage language instruction at the University of California, supplementing Guidelines on Heritage Language Instruction.
The document begins with a discussion of the need for heritage language curriculum before focusing on three major areas to develop: 1) assessment, 2) instructional materials, and 3) teacher training. Issues of assessment to consider include placement of heritage learners; the section on instructional materials discusses inclusion of culturally significant and authentic materials; issues for teacher training include balancing the different needs of both heritage and foreign language learners in the same classroom.

Japanese as a Heritage Learner Special Interest Group
http://www.colorado.edu/ealld/atj/SIG/heritage/index.html
The JHL SIG was established to provide a home base for collecting and disseminating research findings in the field, and promoting JHL education. It also aims to provide a forum for discussing JHL issues. JHL SIG publishes research papers and reports on curriculum and instructional materials through an on-line journal, post conference paper abstracts on the SIG web site, and host a mailing list for information exchange and discussion on JHL issues. The group also typically will have a business meeting at AAS annual meeting and ACTFL annual convention.

Bibliography of Heritage Learner Resources
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/heritagelanguages/article.asp?parentID=57728
This brief bibliography lists books and web resources on aspects of heritage language and heritage language education. While several books focus on a particular language or family of languages, they can be used as a general resource as well.

UCLA Korean Flagship Program
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/flagships/korean/
UCLA's participation in this program began in 2002 with institutional funding to plan curriculum and design materials for advanced-level learners of Korean. It is currently hosting its third cohort of Flagship students. Through a content-based approach, the one-year intensive program at UCLA will focus on academic and professional level reading, listening and speaking. Courses also cover topics in Korean civilization and culture including business, law, and the arts. The program consists of individualized instruction, a mentoring program, internships, and cultural and enrichment activities. Students who complete the UCLA program spend a second year studying in the Korean Flagship Overseas Program at Korea University, which was developed and implemented jointly by UCLA and the University of Hawaii.

UCLA Russian Flagship Program
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/flagships/russian/
The UCLA Slavic Department is accepting applications for its Flagship program for the Academic Year 2007-2008. The UCLA Russian Flagship Program was created under the auspices of the National Security Education Program (NSEP)/National Flagship Language Program (NFLP) to address the critical need for U.S. professionals to use Russian at the highest levels of functional proficiency. The program is open to advanced-level learners of Russian and Russian-speaking students who are committed to attaining professional or distinguished-level language proficiency through an intensive language training program tailored to their professional interests and academic specialization.

The Baltic Studies Summer Institute
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/projects/balssi/index.asp
The Baltic Studies Summer Institute (BALSSI) offers Elementary Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian language courses. BALSSI also offers English-language courses about Baltic history and culture, as well as rich cultural enhancement programs.

The Language Materials Project (LMP)
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/projects/article.asp?parentid=29175
The UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) is an online bibliographic database of teaching and learning materials for over 100 Less Commonly Taught Languages. The LMP provides full bibliographic information for each of the over 4,000 items in the database, including detailed annotations that describe the content and other features of the material. The materials include textbooks, workbooks, reference materials, readers, grammars, CD-ROMs, video and audio cassettes, and web-based materials. The LMP also has information on resources of authentic materials for certain languages, including Kazakh, Russian and Swahili. In addition to the database, the LMP provides profiles for most of the languages in the database. The profiles have a map, a description of key dialects, grammatical features, and a brief linguistic history. The LMP also houses the LCTL database from the Center for Applied Linguistics. This project funded by the US Department of Education is to create a web-searchable bibliographic database of sources of authentic materials for less commonly taught languages and develop a pedagogical guide for the use of these materials in teaching.

Distance Learning Initiative for Less Commonly Taught Languages
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/projects/distancelearning/
The UCLA Distance Learning Initiative for Less Commonly Taught Languages (DL for LCTLs) began actual operation in 2002-03. It is part of an effort to address a crucial and growing challenge to the University of California: meeting the demands for student proficiency in a wide spectrum of the world's languages when many of those languages are not taught at most of the system's campuses, or which may face losing out in budget battles because of modest inherent popularity on the campuses where they are taught. Distance education, melding new generation videoconferencing technology and Web-based course modules, offers a double return on investment: extending more equitable student access to LCTL courses across the UC system while expanding their enrollments to sustainable levels at their 'home' campuses.

Distance Learning Language Courses at UCLA
http://www.international.ucla.edu/languages/projects/distancelearning/courses.asp
UCLA has previously offered Danish, Finnish, and Swedish courses online through their distance learning language courses. Future DL courses can be found on this website.

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15. Language Acquisition Resource Center
http://larcnet.sdsu.edu/index.php
San Diego State University
The mission of the Language Acquisition Resource Center (LARC) is to develop and support the teaching and learning of foreign languages in the United States through research, technology, and publications. Particular attention is paid to less commonly taught languages, cross-cultural issues, language skills assessment, and teacher training.

Professional Organizations, Centers, Projects, and Programs Supporting Language Acquisition
http://larcnet.sdsu.edu/teacher.php?page=organizations
This website offers links to a variety of organizations, centers, etc. hosted by national, California, and even international groups. National links include the International Association for Language Learning Technology (IALLT), the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR), the Center for the Advanced Study of Language (CASL), the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowship Program (FLAS), and the Global Language Network (LingNet). California links include the California State University Foreign Language Council and the California Foreign Language Project. International links include the European Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (EuroCALL) and the Worldwide Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (WorldCALL).

Teacher Education
http://larcnet.sdsu.edu/teacher.php?page=teachereducation
This link offers a host of opportunities for teachers to expand their own learning through potential job openings, teaching certificates, and continuing education. Useful links include a website posting available teaching positions (EdJoin), a website for Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA), and a link for the California Teachers Association resource guide for learning of language policy (Policy and Education).

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